Hand tools and equipment must be kept in an orderly way in boxes made for them. Tool boxes or containers may be divided into two classes, namely, carrying cases or large chests. Carrying cases are made for many of the smaller hand tools used by a journeyman. Each tool has a special place made for it. Place the spirit level so that it will not be broken, The pencil, pocket knife, chalk and chalk line may be wrapped in an apron. The saws must have slots and turn buttons made in order to hold them in rigid position. Place the hammer and half hatchet in such a position so that the cutting edge will not mar other tools. The steel square is usually placed on the side of the tool box with one portion of it extending out through a slot in the top of the box.
Large tool chests are used for storing tools so that they can be transported from job to job. These chests have, in addition to a place for tools, a place for nails, sandpaper and other smaller supplies. If tools cannot be kept in a secure place on the building premises be certain to find a place nearby where they can be kept. If need be take the tools to and from work each day. When tools are kept in a workshop each tool must have a place and be kept there when not in use. A definite procedure for storing and checking tools in a tool room should be followed.
The illustrations show two types of tool containers, the tool box and the tool chest. Study the drawings, giving attention to the method used in joining the pieces. What other types of joints could be used? The kind of hardware used varies a great deal. Before actual construction a stock bill is generally made. In the stock bill the number of pieces of material, their thicknesses, widths and lengths, quality and finish of each are listed. The hardware, also is listed and the costs of each separate item extended and totaled. A suggested form of a stock bill is shown below. This may be worked up on the drawing or obtained in printed form.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Drawing
In addition to careful selection of drawing pencils great care must be used in selecting paper on which to draw. There are many different kinds of drawing or drafting paper made to meet the exacting demands of the draftsman and the tradesman. The following points should be considered when selecting paper:
1. It should have body; 2. It should have erasing quality; 3. It should havea working surface; 4. It should have permanency. The first point involves such qualities as thickness, grade and color. The second point involves such qualitiesas the ability to withstand repeated erasing of either pencil or ink lines. The third point involves such qualities as smooth, toothed or pebbled face on which drawingsare made. The fourth point involves such qualities as grade and kind of stock used. The raw materials used in paper manufacture are cotton or linen rag, straw or bamboo, wood or jute. Paper having a high percentage of cotton or linen rags is the better grade of drawing paper.
Secure samples of as many kinds of drawing paper as possible. Criticise them in the light of the above points. Make a copy, using a good pencil and good paper, of the tool box. Make this an exact copy, using only the pencil, eraser and paper.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Mathematics
The area of a surface is found by multiplying the width by the length. The area is produced by multiplying two dimensions and the volume is produced by multiplying three dimensions. Thus if a piece of lumber is 1" t. and 24" w.- and 24" 1., the area of one large flat surface is found by multiplying the w. x 1. or 12 x 24 which gives 288 square inches. In order to understand the method used in finding board feet (which will be dealt with later) it would be well to find the area of the back piece in the tool box. Also find the area of the bottom of the tray of the tool box. Find the area of the top of the tool chest. Present the answers in terms of square inches, just now, not square feet.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Science
A tool box should be large enough to carry the several tools intended and no larger. Boxes or chests must be of sturdy construction in order to withstand much rough usage. The following features must be embodied in a good tool box:
1. Good lumber (oak, birch, gum, pine or poplar); 2. Good hardware (lock, hinges, corners, handles and straps); 3. Good construction (sturdy joints, workmanship, finish); 4. Devices for holding tools in place.
Refer to Chapter 1 and select a group of tools you would like to have for a home workshop. List the tools and if possible find the total weight. Will your group be too heavy to carry in a box? Will you need to make a tool chest? Consider the size, hardware and other features as given above for this box. Try to make a drawing of the chest.
If one began the study of another language he would have to learn many new words. The study of dwellings involves many new words and phrases. The correct spelling must be known together with the correct meaning or definition.
A definition for a wheel barrow would be: Wheel barrow, n. A light piece of carrying equipment with two handles and one wheel used to carry small loads. Note in this definition that the word is given first, then the part of speech and lastly a description.
Refer to the tool illustrations. List the names of the tools and then give your own definitions. Refer to a dictionary after writing your own definitions.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Civics
Mankind has always used hand tools of some type. It is reasonable to assume that the earliest hand tools were made of stones and branches, although little definite information of a historical nature is available. We do have, however, some facts regarding the origin of the present day metal tools.
Refer to a book written by Frederick A. Collins, entitled, 'A Bird's Eye Viewof Inventions', published by T. Y. Crowell Co., of New York. Gather facts on as many tools as you can. Refer to any other history of tools or to an encyclopedia.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Chapter III House Plans
With the selection of the tools and equipment for construction work, one must turn his attention to a very important phase of building, that of house plans and specifications. These, house plans and specifications, can be obtained in one of three ways. One way is to purchase a set of stock plans and specifications from organizations selling them. Another is the drawing and writing of these two units by a contractor. Still another is the hiring of the services of an architect. This way, of course, is the best, by far, since the architect takes charge of the entire job from the designing to complete supervision of construction. Many architects are not concerned with residence work but this field offers may rewards and is in need of aesthetic influence.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Practical Jobs
Visit the building lot on which the house is to be built. Note the slope of the land, the presence of trees or underbrush and the general appearance of the property. Refer to the set of plans and find the sheet marked PLOT PLAN. From the plot plan obtain the distance the house is to be placed from each property line. This will be the location of the excavation for the foundation. Refer to the sheet, in the set of plans, marked FOUNDATION or BASEMENT PLAN and note the points in common with the plot plan. Obtain a set of house plans and glance through the entire set. Obtain from the PLOT PLAN the distance the house is from the side line and from the front line of the lot. List this information.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Drawing
An eraser is a device used to remove written or line marks from the drawing or writing paper. Erasers, for drafting purposes, are made in several types. They are, the ink line eraser, pliable pencil line eraser, soft pencil line eraser, soft ink eraser, ink and pencil eraser, art gum eraser and steel point eraser. The ink erasers contain more abrasive materials and are firmer in body than the pencil eraser. The art gum and pliable pencil eraser are used to clean a soiled drawing as well as to remove pencil markings. Steel erasers are made of tool steel sharpened to a point and mounted in a handle. Experience growing out of the use of erasers will give the best knowledge of the use of each particular kind.
Obtain a good eraser for pencil lines, also a good one for ink lines and a good art gum. Keep these erasers for use at all times.
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Mathematics
One may classify the work on drawing as line work, lettering and figures. Line work and lettering may be slightly inaccurate but the figures must never be so on a worth while drawing. Dimensions must be checked for accuracy. The smaller dimensions must be checked to harmonize with the over all totals. One must learn to check over all dimensions against fractional or smaller ones. Refer to a floor plan drawing of a set of house plans. Locate the over-all length and width of the house.
Mark it down. Locate the room dimensions and the wall thicknesses, Add the room dimensions and the wall thicknesses along the length of the house. Does it equal the total length given? What is the area of each room?
Stair parts newel posts finials balusters and spindles Staircases Science
The plans or directions for the actual construction work on a house consists of a set of house plans and specifications. The specifications are written instructions and regulations about the many detailed phases of the work. The set of house plans are a series of drawings. House plans are difficult to interpret completely but much information can be obtained from the several drawings by one of average experience. Careful observation will reveal much about a set of plans. Obtain a set of house plans. Find the FIRST FLOOR PLAN drawing. Study it carefully. From this study obtain the name and size of each room. Study the FRONT ELEVATION, SIDE ELEVATION and REAR ELEVATION drawings. Is the house to be built of brick or of wood? Study the PLOT PLAN. Where is the house to be located on the building lot? Study the specifications. What are they?